Victor-Marie Hugo (1802)

Hugo was a French poet, dramatist, and novelist. The son of a general, he was an accomplished poet before age 20. With his verse drama Cromwell in 1827, he emerged as an important figure in Romanticism. His best-known novels are The Hunchback of Notre Dame, an evocation of medieval life, and Les Misérables, the story of the convict Jean Valjean. Their immense popularity made him the most successful writer in the world at that time. Why was Hugo forced into exile in 1851?
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The Mortarboard Cap

The pileus quadratus, a type of Roman skullcap topped with a horizontal square board, has given rise to a number of similar cap styles, among them the biretta worn by the Roman Catholic clergy and the academic mortarboard cap. The academic headgear is embellished with a tassel or liripipe, which may be dyed black, colored to represent the graduate’s area of expertise, or matched to a school’s colors. According to urban legend, why did some UK universities cease to use the cap? Discuss
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pâro

pâro
n. the feeling that no matter what you do is always somehow wrong—as if there’s some obvious way forward that everybody else can see but you, each of them leaning back in their chair and calling out helpfully, “colder, colder, colder…”

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